AFRICA

ГЕОГРАФИЯ

 *  I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY *  II. GEOLOGY *  III. ETHNOLOGY  *  IV. HISTORY *  V. PARTITION AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS *  VI. EXPLORATION AND SURVEY SINCE 1875 *  VII. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS * 

AFRICA

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AFRICA

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

  • I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • II. GEOLOGY
  • III. ETHNOLOGY
  • IV. HISTORY
  • V. PARTITION AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
  • VI. EXPLORATION AND SURVEY SINCE 1875
  • VII. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

  • Список использованной литературы


      Ancient and Medieval. Herodotus, ed. G. Rawlinson, 4 vols.1 (1880); Ptolemy's Geographia, ed. C. Muller, vol. i. (Paris, 1883-1901); Ibn Haukal, ``Description de l'Afrique (transl. McG. de Slane), Nouv. Journal asiatique, 1842; Edrisi, ``Geographie'' (transl. Jaubert), Rec. de voyages . . . Soc. De Geogr. vol. v. (Paris, 1836); Abulfeda, Geographie (transl. Reinaud and Guyard, Paris, 1848-1883); M. A. P.d'Avezac, Description de l'Afrique ancienne (Paris, 1845); L. de Marmol, Description general de Africa (Granada, 1573); L. Sanuto, Geografia dell' Africa (Venice, 1588); F. Pigafetta, A Report of the Kingdom of Congo, &c. (1597); Leo Africanus, The History and Description of Africa (transl. J. Pory, ed. R. Brown), 3 vols. (1896); O. Dapper, Naukeurige beschrijvinge der afrikaensche gewesten, &c. (Amsterdam, 1668) (also English version by Ogilvy, 1670, and French version, Amsterdam, 1686); B. Tellez, ``Travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia,'' A New Collection of Voyages, vol. vii. (1710); G. A. Cavazzi da Montecuccolo, Istorica Descrittione de tre Regni Congo, Matamba, et Angola (Milan, 1690) (account of the labours of the Capuchin missionaries and their observations on the country and people); J. Barbot, ``Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea and of Ethiopia Inferior,', Churchill's Voyages, vol. v. (1707); W. Bosman, A New . . . Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea, &c., 2nd ed. (1721); J. B. Labat, Nouvelle relation de l'Afrique occidentale, 5 vols. (Paris, 1728); Idem, Relation historique de l'Ethiopie occidentale, 5 vols. (Paris, 1732). (b) Modern. B. d'Anville, Memoire conc. les rivieres de l'interieur de l'Afrique (Paris, n.d.); M. Vollkommer, Die Quellen B. d'Anville's fur seine kritische Karte von Afrika Munich, 1904); C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde, i. Theil, 1. Buch, ``Afrika'' (Berlin, 1822); l. M`Queen, Geographical and Commercial View of Northern and Central Africa (Edinburgh, 1821 ); Idem, Geographical Survey of Africa ( 1840); W. D. Cooley, Inner Africa laid open (1852); E. Reclus, Nouvelle geographie universelle, vols. x.-xiii. (1885-1888); A. H. Keane, Africa (in Stanford's Compendium), 2 vols., 2nd ed. (1904-1907); F. Hahn and W. Sievers, Afrika, 2. Aufl. (Leipzig, 1901); M. Fallex and A.Mairey, L'Afrique au debut du XXe siecle (Paris, 1906); Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vols. iii. and iv. (Oxford, 1894, 1904); F. D. and A. J. Herbertson, Descriptive Geographies from Original Sources: Africa (1902); British Africa (The British Empire Series, vol. ii., 1899); Journal of the African Society; Comite de l'Afrique francaise, Bulletin, Paris; Mutteilungen der afrikan. Gesellschaft in Deutschland (Berlin, 1879-1889); Mitteilungen . . . aus den deutschen Schutzegebieten (Berlin); H. Schirmer, Le Sahara (Paris, 1893); Mary H.Kingsley, West African Studies, 2nd ed. (1901); J. Bryce, Impressions of South Africa (1897); Sir Harry Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate, 2 vols. (1902) (vol ii. is devoted to anthropology); E. D. Morel, Affairs of West Africa (1902).

    sec. II. Geography (Physical), Geology, Climate, Flora and Fauna. — (For Descriptive Geogr. see sec. I.)—G. Gurich, ``Uberblick uber den geolog. Bau des afr. Kontinents,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1887; A. Knox, Notes on the Geology of the Continent of Africa (1906) (includes a bibliography); L. von Hohnel, A. Rosiwal, F. Toula and E. Suess, B eitrage zur geologischen Kenntniss des omstlichcn Afrika (Vienna, 1891); E. Stromer, Die Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebieten in Afrika (Munich, 1896); J. Chavanne, Afrika im Lichte uniserer Tage: Bodengestalt, &c. (Vienna, 1881); F.Heidrich, ``Die mittlere Hohe Afrikas,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1888; J. W. Gregory, The Great Rift-Valley (1896); H. G.Lyons, The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906); S. Passarage, Die Kalahari: Versuch einer physischgeogr. Darstellung . . . des sudafr. Beckens (Berlin, 1904); Idem, ``Inselberglandschaften im tropischen Afrika,'' Naturw. Wochenschrift, 1904. 654-665; J. E. S. Moore, The Tanganyika, Problem (1903); W. H. Hudleston, ``On the Origin of the Marine (Halolimnic) Fauna of Lake Tanganyika,'' Journ. Of Trans. Victoria Inst., 1904, 300-351 (discusses the whole question of the geological history of equatorial Africa); E.Stromer, ``Ist der Tanganyika ein Rellikten-See?'' Peterm. Mitt., 1901, 275-278; E. Kohlschutter, ``Die . . . Arbeiten der Pendelexpedition . . . in Deutsch-Ost-Afrika,'' Verh. Deuts. Geographentages Breslau, 1901, 133-153; J. Cornet, ``La geologie du bassin du Congo,'' Bull. Soc. Beige geol., 1898; E. G. Ravenstein, ``The Climatology of Africa'' (ten reports), Reports Brit. Association, 1892-1901; Idem, ``Climatological Observations . . . I. Tropical Africa'' (1904); H. G. Lyons, ``On the Relations between Variations of Atmospheric Pressure . . . and the Nile Flood,'' Proc. Roy. Soc., Ser. A, vol. lxxvi., 1905; P. Reichard, ``Zur Frage der Austrocknung Afrikas,'' Geogr. Zeitschrift, 1895; J. Hoffmann, ``Die tiefsten Temperaturen auf den Hochlandern,'' &c., Peterm. Mitt., 1905; G. Fraunberger, ``Studien uber die jahrlichen Niederschlagsmengen des afrik. Kontinents,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1906; D. Oliver and Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Flora of) Tropical Africa, 10 vols. (1888-1906); K. Oschatz, Anordnung der Vegetation in Afrika (Erlangen, 1900); A. Engler, Hochgebirgs-flora des tropischen Afrika (Berlin, 1892); Idem, Die Pflanzenwelt Ostaftikras und der Nachbargebiete, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1895); Idem, Beitrage zur Flora von Afrika (Engler's Botan. Jahrbucher, 14 vols. &c.); W. P. Hiern, Catalogue of the African Plants Collected by Dr Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853-1861, 2 vols. (1896-1901); R. Schlechter, Westafrikanische Kautschuk-Expedition (Berlin, 1903); H. Baum, Kunene-Sambesi-Expedition (Berlin, 1903) (largely concerned with botany); W. L. Sclater, ``Geography of Mammals, No. iv. The Ethiopian Region,'' Geog. Journal, March 1896; H. A. Bryden and others, Great and Small Game of Africa (1899); F. C. Selous, African Nature Notes and Reminiscences (1908); E. N. Buxton, Two African Trips: with Notes and Suggestions on Big-Game Preservation in Africa (1902) (contains photographs of living animals); G. Schillings, With Flash-light and Rifle in Equatorial East Africa (1906); Idem, In Wildest Africa (1907) (striking collection of photographs of living wild animals); Exploration scientifique de l'Algerie: Histoire naturelle, 14 vols. and 4 atlases, Paris (1846-1850); Annales du Musee du Congo: Botanique, Zoologie (Brussels, 1898, &c.). The latest results of geographical research and a bibliography of current literature are given in the Geographical Journal, published monthly by the Royal Geographical Society.

    sec. III. Ethnology.—H. Hartmann, Die Volker Afrikas (Leipzig, 1879); B. Ankermann, ``Kulturkreise in Afrika,'' Zeit. f. Eth. vol. xxxvii. p. 34; Idem, ``Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Ethnographie der Sudhalfte Afrikas,'' Arch. f. Anth. n.f. iv. p. 24;G.Sergi, Antropologia della stirpe camitica (Turin, 1897); J. Deniker, ``Distribution geogr. et caracteres physiques des Pygmees africains,'' La Geographie, Paris, vol. viii. pp. 213-220; G. W. Stow and G. M. Theal, The Native Races of South Africa (1905); K. Barthel, Volkerbewegungen auf der Sudhalfte des afrik. Kontinents (Leipzig, 1893); A. B. Ellis, The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast (1887); Idem, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (1890); Idem, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (1894); H. Ling Roth, Great Benin, its Customs, &c. (Halifax, 1903); H. Frobenius, Die Heiden-Neger des agyptischen Sudan (Berlin, 1893); Herbert Spencer and D. Duncan, Descriptive Sociology, vol. iv. African Races (1875); A. de Preville, Les Societes africaines (Paris, 1894); D. Macdonald, Africana or, the Heart of Heathen Africa, 2 vols. (1882); L. Frobenius, Der Ursprung der afrikanischen Kulturen (Der Ursprung der Kultur, Band i.) (Berlin, 1898); Idem, ``Die Masken und Geheimbunde Afrikas,'' Abhandl. Kaiserl. Leopoldin.-Carolin. Deuts. Akad. Naturforscher, 1899, 1-278; G. Schweinfurth, Artes africanae Illustrations and Descriptions of . . . industrial Arts, &c. (in German and English) (Leipzig, 1875); F. Ratzel, Die afsikanischen Bogen . . . eine anthrop. geographische Studie (Leipzig, 1891); K. Weule, . Der afrikanische Pfeil (Leipzig, 1899); H. Frobenius, Afrikanische Bautypen (Dauchau bei Munchen, 1894); H. Schurtz, Die afrikan. Gewerbe (Leipzig, 1900); E. W. Blyden, Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1887); James Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent, or Africa and its Missions (Edinburgh and London, 1903); W. H. J. Bleek, Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, 2 parts (1862-1869); Idem, Vocabularies of the Districts of Lourenzo Marques, &c., &c. (1900); R. N. Cust, Sketch of the Modern Languages of Africa, 2 vols. (1993): F. W. Kolbe, A Language Study based on Bantu (1888); J. T. Last, Polyglotta Africana orientalis (1885); J. Torrend, Comparative Grammar of the South African Bantu Languages (1891); S. W. Koelle, Polyglotta Africana (1854); C. Velten, Schilderungen der Suaheli von Expeditionen v. Wissmanns, &c., &c. (1900) (narratives taken down from the mouths of natives); A. Vierkandt, Volksgedichte im westlichen Central-Afrika (Leipzig, 1895). For latest information the following periodicals should be consulted:— Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland; Man (same publishers); Zeitschrift f. Ethnologie; Archiv f. Anthropologie; L'Anthropologie.

    sec. IV. Archaeology and Art.— Publications of the Egyptian Exploration Fund; A. Mariette-Bey, The Monuments of Upper Egypt (1890); H. Brugsch, Die Agyptologie (Leipzig, 1891); G. Maspero, L' Archeologie egyptienne (Paris, 1890?); R. Lepsius, Denkmaler aus Agypten und Athiopien . . ., 6 vols. (Berlin, 1849-1859); G. A. Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia . . . illustrating the Antiquities of the Ancient Kingdom of Meroe (1835); Records of the Past: being English Translations of . . . Egyptian Monuments, vols. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 (1873-1881); Ditto, new series, 6 vols. (1890-1892); D. Randall-MacIver and A. Wilkin, Libyan Notes (1901) (archaeology and ethnology of North Africa); G. Boissier, L'Afrique romaine Promenades archeologiques en Algerie et en Tunisie, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1901); H. Randall-MacIver, Mediaeval Rhodesia (1906); Prisse d'Avennes, Histoire de l'art egyptien d'apres les monuments, &c. with atlas (Paris, 1879; G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, History of Art in Ancient Egypt, 2 vols. (1993); H. Wallis, Egyptian Ceramic Art (1900); C. H. Read and O. M. Dalton, Antiquities from the City of Benin and from other parts of West Africa (1899).

    sec. V. Travel and Exploration.—Dean W. Vincent, The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, vol. 2, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1807); G. E. de Azurara, Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea (Eng. trans., 2 vols., 1896, 1899); R. H. Major, Life of Prince Henry the Navigator (1868); E. G. Ravenstein, ``The Voyages of Diogo Cao and Barth. Diaz,'' Geogr. Journ., Dec. 1900; O. Hartig, ``Altere Entdeckungsgeschichte und Kartographie Afrikas,'' Mitt. Geogr. Gesells. Wien, 1905; J. Leyden and H. Murray, Historical Account of Discoveries, &c., 2 vols., 2nd ed. (1818); T. E. Bowditch, Account of the Discoveries of the Portuguese in the Interior of Angola and Mozambique (1824); P. Paulitschke, Die geogr. Forschung des afrikan. Continents (Vienna, 1880); A. Supan, ``Ein Jahrhundert der Afrika-Forschung,'' Peterm. Mitt., 1888; R. Brown, The Story of Africa and its Explorers, 4 vols. (1892-1895); Sir Harry Johnston, The Nile Quest (1903); James Bruce, Travels to discover the Source of the Nile in 1768-1773, 5 vols., Edinburgh (1790); Proceedings of the Association for . . . Discovery of!the Interior Parts of Africa, 1790-1810; Mungo Park, Travels into the Interior Districts of Africa (1799); Idem, Journal of a Mission, &c. (1815); Capt. J. K. Tuckey, Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire or Congo in 1816 (1818): D. Denham and H. Clapperton, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in N. and Cent. Africa (1826); R. Caillie, Journal d'un voyage a Temboctu et a Jenne, 3 vols., Paris (1830); D. Livingstone, Missionary Travels . . . in South Africa (1857); The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa, ed. H. Waller (1874); H. Barth, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa, 5 vols. (1857); J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches, &c., in Eastern Africa (1860); Sir R. F. Burton, The Lake Regions of Central Africa, 2 vols. (1860); J. H. Speke, Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863).: Sir S. W. Baker, The Albert Nyanza, 2 vols. (1866); G. Schweinfurth, The Heart of Africa, 2 vols. (1873); V. L. Cameron, Across Africa, 2 vols. (1877); T. Baines, The Gold Regions of South-Eastern Africa (1877); Sir H. M. Stanley, Through the Dark Continent, 2 vols. (1878); Idem, In Darkest Africa, 2 vols. (1890); G. Nachtigal, Sahara und Sudan, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1879-1889); P. S. De Brazza, Les Voyages de . . . (1875-1882), Paris, 1884; i. Thomson, Through Masai Land (1885); H. von Wissmann, Unter Deutscher Flagge quer durch Afrika, &c. (Berlin, 1889); Idem, My Second Journey through Equatorial Africa (1891); W. Junker, Travels in Africa 1875-1886, 3 vols. (1890-1892); L. G. Binger, Du Niger au Golfe de Guinee, &c. (Paris, 1892); O. Baumann, Durch Masailand zur Nilquelle (Berlin, 1894); R. Kandt, Caput Nili (Berlin, 1904); C. A. von Gotzen, Durch Afrika von Ost nach West (Berlin, 1896); L. Vanutelli and C. Citerni, Seconda spedizione Bottego: L'Omo (Milan, 1899); P. Foureau, D'Alger au Congo par le Tchad (Paris, 1902); C. Lemaire, Mission scientifique du Ka-Tanga: Journal de route, 1 vol., Resultats des observations, 16 parts (Brussels, 1902); A. St. H. Gibbons, Africa from South to North through Marotseland, 2 vols. (1904); E. Lenfant, La Grande Route du Tchad (Paris, 1905); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, 2 vols. (1907).

    sec. VI. Historical and Political.—H.Schurtz, Africa (World's History, vol. 3, part 3) (1903); Sir H. H. Johnston, History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races (Cambridge, 1899) (reprint with additional chapter ``Latest Developments,'' 1905); A. H. L. Heeren, Reflections on the Politics, Intercourse and Trade of the Ancient Nations of Africa, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1832); G. Rawlinson, History of Ancient Egypt (1881); A. Graham, Roman Africa (1902); J. De Barros, Asia: Ira Decada, Lisbon (1552 and 1777-1778); J. Strandes, Die Portugiesenzeit von . . . Ostafrika (Berlin, 1899); R. Schuck, Brandenburg- Preussens Kolonial-Politik . . . 1641-1721, 2 vols. Leipzig, 1889): G. M`Call Theal, History and Ethnography of Africa south of the Zambesi . . . to 1795, 3 vols. (1907-1910), and History of South Africa since September 1795 (to 1872) 5 vols. (1908); Idem, Records of South-Eastern Africa, 9 vols., 1898-1903; Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency: Outline of the History of the Western Sudan, &c.; (1905); Sir F. Hertslet, The Map of Africa by Treaty, 3 vols. (3rd ed., 1909); J . S. Keltie, The Partition of Africa, 2nd ed. (1895); F. Van Ortroy, Conventions internationales definissant les limites . . . en Afrique (Brussels, 1898); General Act of the Conference of Berlin, 1885: The Surveys and Explorations of British Africa (Colonial Reports, No. 500) (1906), and annual reports thereafter; Sir F. D. Lugard, The Rise or our East African Empire, 2 vols. (1893); E. Petit, Les colonies francaises, 2 vols. (Paris, 1902-1904); E. Rouard de Card, Les Traites de protectorat conclus par la France en Afrique, 1870-1895 (Paris, 1897); A. J. de Araujo, Colonies portuguaises d'Afrique Lisbon, 1900); B.Trognitz, ``Neue Arealbestimmung des Continents Afrika,'' Petermanns Mitt., 1893, 220-221; A. Supan, ``Die Bevolkerung der Erde,'' xii., Peterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 146 (Gotha, 1904) (deals with areas as well as population).

    sec. VII. Commerce and Economics.—A. Silva White, The Development of Africa, 2nd ed. (1892): K. Dove, ``Grundzuge einer Wirtschaftsgeographie Afrikas,'' Geographische Zeitschrift, 1905, i-18; E. Hahn, ``Die Stellung Afrikas in der Geschichte des Welthandels,'' Verhandl. 11. Deutsch. Geographentags zu Bremen (Berlin, 1896); L. de Launay, Les Richesses minerales de l'Afrique (Paris, 1903); K. Futterer, Afrika in seiner Bedeutung fur die Goldproduktion (Berlin, 1894); P. Reichard, ``Das afrikan. Elfenbein und sein Handel,'' Deutsche geogr. Blatter (Bremen, 1889); Sir A. Moloney, Sketch of the Forestry of West Africa (1887); Dewevre, ``Les Caoutchoucs africains,'' Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, 1895; Sir T. F. Buxton, The African Slave Trade and its Remedy (1840); C. M. A. Lavigerie, L'Esclavage africain (Paris, 1888); E. de Renty, Les chemins de fer coloniaux en Afrique, 3 vols. (Paris, 1903-1905); H. Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im tropischen Afrika (Leipzig, 1902); G. Grenfell, ``The Upper Congo as a Waterway,'' Geogr. Journ., Nov. 1902; A. St. H. Gibbons, ``The Nile and Zambezi Systems as Waterways,'' Journ. R. Colon. Inst., 1901; K. Lent, ``Verkehrsmittel in Ostafrika,'' Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1894; ``Trade of the United Kingdom with the African Continent in 1898-1902,'' Board of T. Journ., 1903; Diplomatic and Consular Peports, Annual Series; Colonial Reports; T. H. Parke, Guide to Health in Africa (1893); R. W. Felkin, Geographical Distribution of Tropical Diseases in Africa (1895)

    The following bibliographies may also be consulted: J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique, &c. (San Remo, 1875); P. Paulitschke, Die Afrika-Literatur von 1500 bis 1750 (Vienne, 1882); Catalogue of the Colonial Office Library, vol. 3, Africa (specially for government publications). (E. HE.) 1 Where no place of publication is given, London is to be understood.

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